What is reward?
Certain neural structures, called the reward system, are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. Rewards typically serve as reinforcers. A reinforcer is something that, when presented after a behavior, causes the probability of that behavior’s occurrence to increase. Note that, just because something is labelled as a reward, it does not necessarily imply that it is a reinforcer. A reward can be defined as reinforcer only if its delivery increases the probability of a behavior.
Reward or reinforcement is an objective way to describe the positive value that an individual ascribes to an object, behavioral act or an internal physical state. Primary rewards include those that are necessary for the survival of species, such as food and sexual contact. Secondary rewards derive their value from primary rewards. Money is a good example. They can be produced experimentally by pairing a neutral stimulus with a known reward. Things such as pleasurable touch and beautiful music are often said to be secondary rewards, but such claims are questionable. For example, there is a good deal of evidence that physical contact, as in cuddling and grooming, is an unlearned or primary reward. Rewards are generally considered more desirable than punishment in modifying behavior.
(from the Wikipedia entry)
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How do I study it?
I use various method to study the influence of reward on attention: psychophysics, eye-tracking, electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). See below for a list of publications that show how we employ these methods to study the influence of reward.
- Book chapter published in Cambridge Elements in Perception !
- Manuscript accepted as book chapter for publication in Cambridge Elements in Perception !
- Value-modulated oculomotor capture by task-irrelevant stimuli is a consequence of early competition on the saccade map
- Exogenous visual orienting by reward
- Attentional Selection: Top-Down, Bottom-Up and History-Based Biases (Elements in Perception)